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Minitab Manual

Minitab 16 - Reference Manual
A User's Guide for an Entry-Level Statistics Course

This reference manual is the property of Jack Mummert.  It was written for use in Math 141 - Statistics at Southeastern Illinois College.  The manual may not be reproduced, in print or in electronic format, without express written permission from me. 

 

Minitab Projects and Worksheets
 

Z-Scores
 

Basic Statistics
 

Statistical Graphs

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Testing

Correlation Coefficient
 

Linear Regression

Multiple Regression

Goodness of Fit Test

 

Chi-Square Analysis
 

ANOVA


 

Projects and Worksheets
Main Menu

Opening a Project

Saving a Project

Saving a Session Window

 

Entering a Data Set

Opening a Data Set

Saving a Data Set
 

Sorting a Data Set

Data Manipulation


 
 

Statistical Graphs
Main Menu

Stem and Leaf  

Histogram

Cumulative Histogram

Bar Chart

Frequency Polygon

Ogive

Pie Chart

Box and Whisker Plot

Scatter Plot

Scatter Plot with Regression Line


  

Confidence Intervals
Main Menu

Large Interval for Mean
 

Small Interval for Mean

Interval for Proportion

Interval for St. Deviation and Variance


    

Hypothesis Testing
Main Menu

Mean Test - 1 Large Sample

Mean Test - 1 Small Sample

Mean Test - 2 Large Samples

Mean Test - 2 Small Samples

Mean Test - 1 Large & 1 Small

Mean Test - Paired Data

Proportion Test - 1 Sample

Proportion Test - 2 Samples

Standard Deviation Test - 1 Sample

Variance Test - 1 Sample

Standard Deviation Test - 2 Samples

Variance Test - 2 Samples


 
  

Opening a Minitab Project

Project Menu

Main Menu

Opening a Minitab project will open the associated data set, session window, and graphs.

  • Click on "File".
  • Click on "Open Project".
  • Under "Look in", change to the drive containing your USB drive.
  • Double click on the project name.

Saving a Minitab Project

Project Menu

Main Menu

There are several ways to save components of your MINITAB project.  Separate instructions are provided for saving each individual component.  However, the easiest way to save your work is to save it as a project.  This will save your data set, session window, and all graphs in a single file; i.e., Mummert.MPJ.  This is the method you will be required to use for your semester-long project.

  • Click on "File".
  • Click on "Save Project As".
  • Under "Save in", change to the drive containing your USB drive.
  • Change the "File Name" and leave "Save as Type" as ".MPJ".
  • Click on "OK".
  • To save your project later, click on the "Save" icon in the toolbar.  Additional work will be added to your project file.

Saving a Session Window

Project Menu

Main Menu

To save the session window separately from the Minitab project,

  • Click on "File".
  • Click on "Save Session Window As".
  • Under "Save in", change to the drive containing your USB drive.
  • Change the "File Name" and leave "Save as Type" as ".TXT".
  • Click on "OK".
The file can be imported into your word processor (Word, Word Perfect, etc.) at this point. 

It is also possible to select material from the session window and paste it directly into Word.
  • Highlight the material you want to export to Word.
  • Right click and select "Send Section to Microsoft Word".  The selected material is pasted into the open Word document.  If no document is open, it will be automatically pasted into a new document in Word.

Entering a Data Set

Project Menu

Main Menu

To create a data set, 

  • The worksheet window is open at the bottom of the screen.  It resembles a spreadsheet file.
  • Enter variable names at the top of the column beneath C1, C2, etc.
  • Enter the data below the names, in the numbered rows. 

Opening a Data Set

Project Menu

Main Menu

To open a data set that has been previously saved,

  • Click on "File".
  • Click on "Open Worksheet".
  • Under "Look in", change to the proper drive containing the data set.
  • Double click on the proper sub-directory.
  • If you are not opening a Minitab data set, click on "Files of type" and change to the appropriate file type (Minitab portable, Excel, XML, Quattro Pro, Lotus 1-2-3, Database, or Text).
  • Double click on the data set.
  • Click on "OK" to add the data set to the project.  Be sure to save your project again after adding the data. 

Sorting a Data Set

Project Menu

Main Menu

To sort a data set, 

  • Click on "Data".
  • Click on "Sort".
  • In "Sort columns", click on each variable in the data set.
  • In the first "By column" box, click on the primary variable by which to sort.  If you wish to sort largest to smallest, click on "Descending".  If you have more than one column to consider in sorting, enter them is subsequent "By column" boxes in the order of importance.
  • If you wish to store the sorted data in a new worksheet, click "New worksheet" and enter a name for the new worksheet.
  • If you wish to overwrite the original data with the sorted, click "Original column(s)".
  • If you wish to store the sorted data in blank columns within the current worksheet, click "Column(s) of current worksheet" and specify the blank columns (i.e., C5 C6 C7) you wish to use.
  • Click on "OK". 
  • Be sure to save your data set or project after sorting the data.

Data Manipulation

Project Menu

Main Menu

To perform mathematical procedures on the data set,

  • Click on "Calc".
  • Click on "Calculator".
  • In "Store result in variable", enter the name of an unused column.
  • Click in the "Expression" box and type the mathematical function you wish to perform.
  • Click on "OK".
  • Be sure to save your data set or project after sorting the data.

Saving Your Data

Project Menu

Main Menu

To save the data set separately from the Minitab project, 

  • Make sure the worksheet you want to save is the active worksheet (on top).
  • Click on "File".
  • Click on "Save Current Worksheet as".
  • Under "Save in", change to the drive containing your USB drive.
  • Change the "File Name" and leave "Save as Type" as "Minitab".
  • Click on "OK".

Z-Scores

Main Menu

To compute z-scores, 

  • Click on "Calc".
  • Click on "Standardize".
  • Double click on the name of the variable to be converted to a z-score. 
  • Click in the "Store results in" box and type the name of an unused column.
  • Click on the top circle to computer the z-score.
  • Click on "OK". 
  • Open the data set and name the new column.
  • Select the new column containing the z-scores.
  • Right click and select "Format Column".
  • Click on "Numeric".
  • Click on "Fixed decimal" and set to 2 decimal places.
  • Click on "OK".
  • Be sure to save your data set or project after sorting the data.

Basic Statistics

Main Menu

To compute a battery of basic statistics for the data set, 

  • Click on "Stat".
  • Click on "Basic Statistics" and "Display Descriptive Statistics".
  • Double click on the name of the variable. 
  • Click on "Statistics".
  • Make sure the following statistics are checked:  Mean, SE Mean, Standard Deviation, Variance, Minimum, Maximum, N nonmissing, N missing, First Quartile, Median, Third Quartile, Mode.
  • Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK". 
  • The results are displayed in the session window.

Stem And Leaf Plot

Graphs Menu

Main Menu

To create a stem and leaf plot, 

  • Click on "Graph".
  • Click on "Stem-and-Leaf". 
  • Select the variable to use. 
  • With whole number data set the "Increment" to 10.  With decimal data set the "Increment" to 1.
  • Click on "OK".
Note:  This is a computation graph, not a professional graph.  The results are stored in the session window.  They are not intended for publication purposes.

Histogram

Graphs Menu

Main Menu

To create a histogram, 

  • Click on "Graph".  Click on "Histogram".  Click on "Simple".  Click on "OK".
  • Double click on the variable to graph.
  • Click on "Scale".  Click on "Y-Scale Type".  Click on "Frequency".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Labels".  In "Title", enter your descriptive title.  If you wish to have a sub-title, enter it in "Sub-title 1".  In "Footnote 1", enter your reference-title (i.e., Figure 1).  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Data View".  Click on "Data Display".  Click on "Bars".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • Double click on your footnote.  Click on "Alignment".  Select "Centered".  Click on "OK".
  • Double click on the bars in your graph.  Click on "Binning".  Select "Cutpoint".  Click on "Midpoint/Cutpoint positions".  In the box, enter the starting value of each group from your frequency distribution.  [Assume that the intervals are: 0 to 6, 7 to 12, 13 to 18, 19 to 24, 25 to 30, and 31 to 36.  You would enter the starting values:  0 7 13 19 25 31 37 (37 represents the next group with a zero frequency).]
  • If you notice any typographic errors, double click on the error and make corrections in the "Text" box.  Click on "OK".
  • If you wish to save the graph in your project, click on the dash bar on the upper right to shrink it to the background.  Click save your project to update the file.  (You will do this for your semester-long project.)
  • If you wish to save the graph to export into your word processor, you have two options:  1)  Right click on the graph and select "Send Graph to Microsoft Word".  It will be added to your active Word file or a new Word file will be opened if none are active.  2)  Click on "File".  Click on "Save Graph As".  Under "Save in", select the drive containing your USB drive.  Under "Save type as", select your preferred file type (JPG, PNG, or GIF are the most common choices).  Under "File name", choose a name for your graph.  Click on "Save".  You will do this for your research papers.

Cumulative Histogram

Graphs Menu

Main Menu

To create a cumulative histogram, 

  • Click on "Graph".  Click on "Histogram".  Click on "Simple".  Click on "OK".
  • Double click on the variable to graph.
  • Click on "Scale".  Click on "Y-Scale Type".  Click on "Frequency".  Click on "Accumulate values across bins".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Labels".  In "Title", enter your descriptive title.  If you wish to have a sub-title, enter it in "Sub-title 1".  In "Footnote 1", enter your reference-title (i.e., Figure 1).  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Data View".  Click on "Data Display".  Click on "Bars".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • Double click on your footnote.  Click on "Alignment".  Select "Centered".  Click on "OK".
  • Double click on the bars in your graph.  Click on "Binning".  Select "Cutpoint".  Click on "Midpoint/Cutpoint positions".  In the box, enter the starting value of each group from your frequency distribution.  [Assume that the intervals are: 0 to 6, 7 to 12, 13 to 18, 19 to 24, 25 to 30, and 31 to 36.  You would enter the starting values:  0 7 13 19 25 31 37 (37 represents the next group with a zero frequency).]
  • If you notice any typographic errors, double click on the error and make corrections in the "Text" box.  Click on "OK".
  • If you wish to save the graph in your project, click on the dash bar on the upper right to shrink it to the background.  Click save your project to update the file.  (You will do this for your semester-long project.)
  • If you wish to save the graph to export into your word processor, you have two options:  1)  Right click on the graph and select "Send Graph to Microsoft Word".  It will be added to your active Word file or a new Word file will be opened if none are active.  2)  Click on "File".  Click on "Save Graph As".  Under "Save in", select the drive containing your USB drive.  Under "Save type as", select your preferred file type (JPG, PNG, or GIF are the most common choices).  Under "File name", choose a name for your graph.  Click on "Save".  You will do this for your research papers.

Bar Chart

Graphs Menu

Main Menu

To create a bar chart,

  • Create a three-column frequency distribution in the worksheet - one column should contain your group structure, one column should contain the midpoints of your group structure, and the third column should contain the group frequencies.  To make the polygon and ogive easier to create be sure to add the zero groups to your frequency distribution when you do this.  (You may have already done this for a previous graph).
  • To force the graph to produce your groups in the sequence you entered them into the worksheet, select the column containing your groups, right click, click on "Column"; click on "Value Order"; select "Order of occurrence in worksheet"; click on "OK".
  • Click on "Graph".  Click on "Bar Chart".
  • Under "Bars represent", click on "Values from a table".  Click on "Simple".  Click on "OK".
  • In the "Graph variable" box, double click on the variable representing your group frequency.
  • In the "Categorical variable" box, double click on the variable representing your group structure.
  • Click on "Labels".  In "Title", enter your descriptive title.  If you wish to have a sub-title, enter it in "Sub-title 1".  In "Footnote 1", enter your reference-title (i.e., Figure 1).  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Data View".  Click on "Data Display".  Click on "Bars".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Data Options".  Click on "Subset".  Select "Specify which rows to exclude".  Select "Row numbers".  In the adjacent box, enter the row numbers which contain your zero groups created in step one (with a space between the row numbers).  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • Double click on your footnote.  Click on "Alignment".  Select "Centered".  Click on "OK".
  • Double click on your x-axis label.  Change the name to your desired description.  Repeat this process for the y-axis label.
  • If you notice any typographic errors, double click on the error and make corrections in the "Text" box.  Click on "OK".
  • If you wish to save the graph in your project, click on the dash bar on the upper right to shrink it to the background.  Click save your project to update the file.  (You will do this for your semester-long project.)
  • If you wish to save the graph to export into your word processor, you have two options:  1)  Right click on the graph and select "Send Graph to Microsoft Word".  It will be added to your active Word file or a new Word file will be opened if none are active.  2)  Click on "File".  Click on "Save Graph As".  Under "Save in", select the drive containing your USB drive.  Under "Save type as", select your preferred file type (JPG, PNG, or GIF are the most common choices).  Under "File name", choose a name for your graph.  Click on "Save".  You will do this for your research papers.

Frequency Polygon

Graphs Menu

Main Menu

To create a frequency polygon, 

  • Create a three-column frequency distribution in the worksheet - one column should contain your group structure, one column should contain the midpoints of your group structure, and the third column should contain the group frequencies.  To make the polygon and ogive easier to create be sure to add the zero groups to your frequency distribution when you do this.  (You may have already done this for a previous graph).
  • To force the graph to produce your groups in the sequence you entered them into the worksheet, select the column containing your groups, right click, click on "Column"; click on "Value Order"; select "Order of occurrence in worksheet"; click on "OK".
  • Click on "Graph".  Click on "Bar Chart".
  • Under "Bars represent", click on "Values from a table".  Click on "Simple".  Click on "OK".
  • In the "Graph variable" box, double click on the variable representing your group frequency.
  • In the "Categorical variable" box, double click on the variable representing your group midpoints.
  • Click on "Labels".  In "Title", enter your descriptive title.  If you wish to have a sub-title, enter it in "Sub-title 1".  In "Footnote 1", enter your reference-title (i.e., Figure 1).  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Data View".  Click on "Data Display".  Deselect "Bars" and click on "Connect line".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Data Options".  Click on "Subset".  Select "Specify which rows to exclude".  Select "No rows".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • Double click on your footnote.  Click on "Alignment".  Select "Centered".  Click on "OK".
  • Double click on your x-axis label.  Change the name to your desired description.  Repeat this process for the y-axis label.
  • If you notice any typographic errors, double click on the error and make corrections in the "Text" box.  Click on "OK".
  • If you wish to save the graph in your project, click on the dash bar on the upper right to shrink it to the background.  Click save your project to update the file.  (You will do this for your semester-long project.)
  • If you wish to save the graph to export into your word processor, you have two options:  1)  Right click on the graph and select "Send Graph to Microsoft Word".  It will be added to your active Word file or a new Word file will be opened if none are active.  2)  Click on "File".  Click on "Save Graph As".  Under "Save in", select the drive containing your USB drive.  Under "Save type as", select your preferred file type (JPG, PNG, or GIF are the most common choices).  Under "File name", choose a name for your graph.  Click on "Save".  You will do this for your research papers.

Ogive

Graphs Menu

Main Menu

To create an ogive, 

  • Create a three-column frequency distribution in the worksheet - one column should contain your group structure, one column should contain the midpoints of your group structure, and the third column should contain the group frequencies.  To make the polygon and ogive easier to create be sure to add the zero groups to your frequency distribution when you do this.  (You may have already done this for a previous graph).
  • Change the values in your group midpoint column to be class limits of the groups.
  • To force the graph to produce your groups in the sequence you entered them into the worksheet, select the column containing your groups, right click, click on "Column"; click on "Value Order"; select "Order of occurrence in worksheet"; click on "OK".
  • Click on "Graph".  Click on "Bar Chart".
  • Under "Bars represent", click on "Values from a table".  Click on "Simple".  Click on "OK".
  • In the "Graph variable" box, double click on the variable representing your group frequency.
  • In the "Categorical variable" box, double click on the variable representing class limits of your groups.
  • Click on "Chart options".  Select "Accumulate Y across X".
  • Click on "Labels".  In "Title", enter your descriptive title.  If you wish to have a sub-title, enter it in "Sub-title 1".  In "Footnote 1", enter your reference-title (i.e., Figure 1).  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Data View".  Click on "Data Display".  Deselect "Bars" and click on "Connect line".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Data Options".  Click on "Subset".  Select "Specify which rows to exclude".  Select "Row numbers".  In the adjacent box, enter the row numbers which contain the right-hand zero group created in step one.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • Double click on your footnote.  Click on "Alignment".  Select "Centered".  Click on "OK".
  • Double click on your x-axis label.  Change the name to your desired description.  Repeat this process for the y-axis label.
  • Click on the "Cumulative across all data" line.  Delete it.
  • If you notice any typographic errors, double click on the error and make corrections in the "Text" box.  Click on "OK".
  • If you wish to save the graph in your project, click on the dash bar on the upper right to shrink it to the background.  Click save your project to update the file.  (You will do this for your semester-long project.)
  • If you wish to save the graph to export into your word processor, you have two options:  1)  Right click on the graph and select "Send Graph to Microsoft Word".  It will be added to your active Word file or a new Word file will be opened if none are active.  2)  Click on "File".  Click on "Save Graph As".  Under "Save in", select the drive containing your USB drive.  Under "Save type as", select your preferred file type (JPG, PNG, or GIF are the most common choices).  Under "File name", choose a name for your graph.  Click on "Save".  You will do this for your research papers.

Pie Chart

Graphs Menu

Main Menu

To create a pie chart,

  • Create a three-column frequency distribution in the worksheet - one column should contain your group structure, one column should contain the midpoints of your group structure, and the third column should contain the group frequencies.  To make the polygon and ogive easier to create be sure to add the zero groups to your frequency distribution when you do this.  (You may have already done this for a previous graph).
  • To force the graph to produce your groups in the sequence you entered them into the worksheet, select the column containing your groups, right click, click on "Column"; click on "Value Order"; select "Order of occurrence in worksheet"; click on "OK".
  • Click on "Graph".  Click on "Pie Chart".  Select "Chart values from a table".
  • In "Categorical variable", select your group structure.
  • In "Summary variables", select your group frequencies.
  • Click on "Labels".  In "Title", enter your descriptive title.  If you wish to have a sub-title, enter it in "Sub-title 1".  In "Footnote 1", enter your reference-title (i.e., Figure 1).  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Labels".  Click on "Slice Labels".  Select "Category name" and "Percent".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Data Options".  Click on "Subset".  Select "Specify which rows to exclude".  Select "Row numbers".  In the adjacent box, enter the row numbers which contain your zero groups created in step one (with a space between the row numbers).  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • Double click on your footnote.  Click on "Alignment".  Select "Centered".  Click on "OK".
  • If you notice any typographic errors, double click on the error and make corrections in the "Text" box.  Click on "OK".
  • If you wish to save the graph in your project, click on the dash bar on the upper right to shrink it to the background.  Click save your project to update the file.  (You may do this for your semester-long project.)
  • If you wish to save the graph to export into your word processor, you have two options:  1)  Right click on the graph and select "Send Graph to Microsoft Word".  It will be added to your active Word file or a new Word file will be opened if none are active.  2)  Click on "File".  Click on "Save Graph As".  Under "Save in", select the drive containing your USB drive.  Under "Save type as", select your preferred file type (JPG, PNG, or GIF are the most common choices).  Under "File name", choose a name for your graph.  Click on "Save".  You will do this for your research papers.

Box and Whisker Plot

Graphs Menu

Main Menu

To create a box plot, 

  • Click on "Graph".  Click on "Boxplot".  Click on "Simple".  Click on "OK".
  • Double click on the variable to graph.
  • Click on "Scale".  Click on "Transpose value and category scales".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Labels".  In "Title", enter your descriptive title.  If you wish to have a sub-title, enter it in "Sub-title 1".  In "Footnote 1", enter your reference-title (i.e., Figure 1).  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Data View".  Make sure the only boxes checked are:  "Interquartile range box" and "Outlier Symbols".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • Double click on your footnote.  Click on "Alignment".  Select "Centered".  Click on "OK".
  • If you notice any typographic errors, double click on the error and make corrections in the "Text" box.  Click on "OK".
  • If you wish to save the graph in your project, click on the dash bar on the upper right to shrink it to the background.  Click save your project to update the file.  (You may do this for your semester-long project.)
  • If you wish to save the graph to export into your word processor, you have two options:  1)  Right click on the graph and select "Send Graph to Microsoft Word".  It will be added to your active Word file or a new Word file will be opened if none are active.  2)  Click on "File".  Click on "Save Graph As".  Under "Save in", select the drive containing your USB drive.  Under "Save type as", select your preferred file type (JPG, PNG, or GIF are the most common choices).  Under "File name", choose a name for your graph.  Click on "Save".  You will do this for your research papers.

Scatter Plot

Graphs Menu

Main Menu

To create a scatter plot, 

  • Click on "Graph".  Click on "Scatterplot".  Click on "Simple".  Click on "OK".
  • Double click on the Y-variable and X-variable to graph. 
  • Click on "Labels".  In "Title", enter your descriptive title.  If you wish to have a sub-title, enter it in "Sub-title 1".  In "Footnote 1", enter your reference-title (i.e., Figure 1).  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Data View".  Make sure "Symbol" is selected.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • Double click on your footnote.  Click on "Alignment".  Select "Centered".  Click on "OK".
  • If you notice any typographic errors, double click on the error and make corrections in the "Text" box.  Click on "OK".
  • If you wish to save the graph in your project, click on the dash bar on the upper right to shrink it to the background.  Click save your project to update the file.  (You may do this for your semester-long project.)
  • If you wish to save the graph to export into your word processor, you have two options:  1)  Right click on the graph and select "Send Graph to Microsoft Word".  It will be added to your active Word file or a new Word file will be opened if none are active.  2)  Click on "File".  Click on "Save Graph As".  Under "Save in", select the drive containing your USB drive.  Under "Save type as", select your preferred file type (JPG, PNG, or GIF are the most common choices).  Under "File name", choose a name for your graph.  Click on "Save".  You will do this for your research papers.

Scatter Plot with Regression Line Overlay

Graphs Menu

Main Menu

To create a scatter plot with a regression line overlay, 

  • Click on "Graph".  Click on "Scatterplot".  Click on "With Regression".  Click on "OK".
  • Double click on the Y-variable and X-variable to graph. 
  • Click on "Labels".  In "Title", enter your descriptive title.  If you wish to have a sub-title, enter it in "Sub-title 1".  In "Footnote 1", enter your reference-title (i.e., Figure 1).  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "Data View".  Make sure "Symbol" is selected.  Click on "Regression".  Make sure "Linear" and "Fit intercept" are selected.  Click on "OK".  This will add the regression line to the scatter plot, but only if you saved the Fits when computing the regression equation.
  • Click on "OK".
  • Double click on your footnote.  Click on "Alignment".  Select "Centered".  Click on "OK".
  • If you notice any typographic errors, double click on the error and make corrections in the "Text" box.  Click on "OK".
  • If you wish to save the graph in your project, click on the dash bar on the upper right to shrink it to the background.  Click save your project to update the file.  (You may do this for your semester-long project.)
  • If you wish to save the graph to export into your word processor, you have two options:  1)  Right click on the graph and select "Send Graph to Microsoft Word".  It will be added to your active Word file or a new Word file will be opened if none are active.  2)  Click on "File".  Click on "Save Graph As".  Under "Save in", select the drive containing your USB drive.  Under "Save type as", select your preferred file type (JPG, PNG, or GIF are the most common choices).  Under "File name", choose a name for your graph.  Click on "Save".  You will do this for your research papers.

Large Sample Confidence Interval for the Mean

Confidence Menu

Main Menu

To compute confidence intervals from a column of data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Sample Z".
  • Click in "Samples in columns".  Double click on the variable to be used.
  • Click in "Standard deviation".  Enter the value from the basic statistics.
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the desired confidence level.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session window. 

To compute confidence intervals from summarized data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Sample Z".
  • Click in "Summarized data".  Enter the "Sample size" and "Mean".
  • Click in "Standard deviation".  Enter the value.
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the desired confidence level.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session window. 

Small Sample Confidence Interval for the Mean

Confidence Menu

Main Menu

To compute confidence intervals from a column of data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Sample t".
  • Click in "Samples in columns".  Double click on the variable to be used.
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the desired confidence level.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session window. 

To compute confidence intervals from summarized data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Sample t".
  • Click in "Summarized data".  Enter the "Sample size", "Mean", and "Standard deviation".
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the desired confidence level.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session window. 

Confidence Interval for the Proportion

Confidence Menu

Main Menu

To compute confidence intervals from a column of data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Proportion".
  • Click in "Samples in column".  Double click on the variable to be used.
  • Click in "Options".  Enter the desired confidence level.  Click on "Use test and interval based on normal distribution".  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To compute confidence intervals from summarized data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Proportion".
  • Click in "Summarized data".  Enter the number of successes in "Number of events" and the sample size in "number of trials".
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the desired confidence level.  Click on "Use test and interval based on normal distribution".  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Confidence Interval for Standard Deviation and Variance

Confidence Menu

Main Menu

To compute confidence intervals for standard deviation and variance from a column of data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select ""Samples in columns".
  • Click in "Columns".  Double click on the variable to be used.
  • Click in "Options".  Enter the desired confidence level.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results include the confidence intervals for both standard deviation and variance.  They are stored in the session file.

To compute confidence intervals for standard deviation from summarized data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select "Sample standard deviation".
  • Enter the "Sample size" and "Sample standard deviation".
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the desired confidence level.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To compute confidence intervals for variance from summarized data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select "Sample variance".
  • Enter the "Sample size" and "Sample variance".
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the desired confidence level.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Mean Hypothesis Test for One Large Sample

Hypothesis Menu

Main Menu

To perform a hypothesis test for one large sample mean from a column of data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Sample Z".
  • Click in "Samples in columns".  Double click on the variable to be used.
  • Click in "Standard deviation".  Enter the value from the basic statistics.
  • Click on "Perform hypothesis test".  Enter the null hypothesis in "Hypothesized mean".
  • Click on "Options".  Select the "Alternative" hypothesis.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session window. 

To perform a hypothesis test for one large sample mean from summarized data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Sample Z".
  • Click in "Summarized data".  Enter the "Sample size" and "Mean".
  • Click in "Standard deviation".  Enter the value.
  • Click on "Perform hypothesis test".  Enter the null hypothesis in "Hypothesized mean".
  • Click on "Options".  Select the "Alternative" hypothesis.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session window. 

Mean Hypothesis Test for One Small Sample

Hypothesis Menu

Main Menu

To perform hypothesis test for one small sample mean from a column of data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Sample t".
  • Click in "Samples in columns".  Double click on the variable to be used.
  • Click on "Perform hypothesis test".  Enter the null hypothesis in "Hypothesized mean".
  • Click on "Options".  Select the "Alternative" hypothesis.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session window. 

To perform hypothesis test for one small sample mean from summarized data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Sample t".
  • Click in "Summarized data".  Enter the "Sample size", "Mean", and "Standard Deviation".
  • Click on "Perform hypothesis test".  Enter the null hypothesis in "Hypothesized mean".
  • Click on "Options".  Select the "Alternative" hypothesis.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session window. 

Mean Hypothesis Test for Two Samples

Hypothesis Menu

Main Menu

Minitab does not differentiate between two large samples, two small samples, or one large and one small sample when performing a hypothesis test for two means. 

To perform a hypothesis test for comparing two samples from one column of data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on"2-Sample t".
  • Click on "Samples in one column".  Double click on the variable to be used in the "Samples" box.  Double click on the grouping variable to distinguish the samples in the "Subscripts" box.
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the "Test difference" - usually zero.  Select the "Alternative" hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To perform a hypothesis test for comparing two samples from two columns of data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on"2-Sample t".
  • Click on "Samples in different columns".  Double click on one variable in the "First" box.  Double click on the other variable in the "Second" box.
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the "Test difference" - usually zero.  Select the "Alternative" hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To perform a hypothesis test for comparing two samples from summarized data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "2-Sample t".
  • Click on "Summarized data".  Enter the "Sample size", "Mean", and "Standard deviation" for each variable.
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the "Test difference" - usually zero.  Select the "Alternative" hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK". 
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Mean Hypothesis Test for Paired Data

Hypothesis Menu

Main Menu

Minitab does not differentiate between two large paired samples and two small paired samples when performing a hypothesis test for means. 

To perform a hypothesis test on paired data from two columns of data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "Paired t".
  • Click on "Samples in columns".  Double click on one variable in the "First sample" box.  Double click on the other variable in the "Second sample" box.  Be sure to select the variable in the order you wish them to be subtracted.
  • Click on "Options".
  • Enter the test mean (almost always zero) and select the alternative hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To perform a hypothesis test on paired data from summarized data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "Paired t".
  • Click on "Summarized data (differences)".  Enter the sample size.  Enter the mean of the differences of the measures.  Enter the standard deviation of the differences of the measures.
  • Click on "Options".
  • Enter the test mean (almost always zero) and select the alternative hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Proportion Hypothesis Test for One Sample

Hypothesis Menu

Main Menu

To perform a hypothesis test for one sample proportion from a column of data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1 Proportion".
  • Click in the "Samples in columns".  Double click on the variable to be used.
  • Click on "Perform hypothesis test".  Enter the null hypothesis in "Hypothesized proportion".
  • Click on "Options".  Select the alternative hypothesis.  Click on "Use test and interval based on normal distribution".  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To perform a hypothesis test for one sample proportion from summarized data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1 Proportion".
  • Click on "Summarized data".  Enter the number of successes in "Number of events".  Enter the number of subjects in "Number of trials".
  • Click on "Perform hypothesis test".  Enter the null hypothesis in "Hypothesized proportion".
  • Click on "Options".  Select the alternative hypothesis.  Click on "Use test and interval based on normal distribution".  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK". 
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Proportion Hypothesis Test for Two Samples

Hypothesis Menu

Main Menu

To perform a hypothesis test for comparing two sample proportions from one column of data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on"2 Proportions".
  • Click on "Samples in one column".  Double click on the variable to be used in the "Samples" box.  Double click on the grouping variable to distinguish the samples in the "Subscripts" box.
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the "Test difference" - usually zero.  Select the "Alternative" hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To perform a hypothesis test for comparing two sample proportions from two columns of data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on"2 Proportions".
  • Click on "Samples in different columns".  Double click on one variable in the "First" box.  Double click on the other variable in the "Second" box.
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the "Test difference" - usually zero.  Select the "Alternative" hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To perform a hypothesis test for comparing two sample proportions from summarized data

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on"2 Proportions".
  • Click on "Summarized data".  Enter the number of successes in "Number of events".  Enter the number of subjects in "Number of trials".  Repeat this for each sample.
  • Click on "Options".  Enter the "Test difference" - usually zero.  Select the "Alternative" hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Standard Deviation Hypothesis Test for One Sample

Hypothesis Menu

Main Menu

To compute a hypothesis test for standard deviation from a column of data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select ""Samples in columns".
  • Click in "Columns".  Double click on the variable to be used.
  • Click on "Perform hypothesis test".  Select "Hypothesized standard deviation" and enter the null hypothesis.
  • Click in "Options".  Select the alternative hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To compute a hypothesis test for standard deviation from summarized data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select "Sample standard deviation".
  • Enter the "Sample size" and "Sample standard deviation".
  • Click on "Perform hypothesis test".  Select "Hypothesized standard deviation" and enter the null hypothesis.
  • Click on "Options".  Select the alternative hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Variance Hypothesis Test for One Sample

Hypothesis Menu

Main Menu

To compute a hypothesis test for variance from a column of data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select ""Samples in columns".
  • Click in "Columns".  Double click on the variable to be used.
  • Click on "Perform hypothesis test".  Select "Hypothesized variance" and enter the null hypothesis.
  • Click in "Options".  Select the alternative hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To compute confidence intervals for variance from summarized data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select "Sample variance".
  • Enter the "Sample size" and "Sample variance".
  • Click on "Options".  Select the alternative hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Standard Deviation Hypothesis Test for Two Samples

Hypothesis Menu

Main Menu

To compute a hypothesis test for standard deviation from one column of data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select ""Samples in one column".
  • Double click on the variable to be used in the "Samples" box.  Double click on the grouping variable to distinguish the samples in the "Subscripts" box.
  • Click in "Options".  In "Hypothesized ratio", select "StDev 1/StDev 2".  In "Value", enter the hypothesized value for the ratio. Use the default value of 1 to test the equality of two standard deviations.  Select the alternative hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To compute a hypothesis test for standard deviation from two columns of data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select ""Samples in different columns".  Double click on one variable in the "First" box.  Double click on the other variable in the "Second" box.
  • Click in "Options".  In "Hypothesized ratio", select "StDev 1/StDev 2".  In "Value", enter the hypothesized value for the ratio. Use the default value of 1 to test the equality of two standard deviations.  Select the alternative hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To compute a hypothesis test for standard deviation from summarized data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select ""Sample standard deviations".
  • Enter the "Sample size" and "Standard deviation" for each sample.
  • Click in "Options".  In "Hypothesized ratio", select "StDev 1/StDev 2".  In "Value", enter the hypothesized value for the ratio. Use the default value of 1 to test the equality of two standard deviations.  Select the alternative hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Variance Hypothesis Test for Two Samples

Hypothesis Menu

Main Menu

To compute a hypothesis test for variance from one column of data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select ""Samples in one column".
  • Double click on the variable to be used in the "Samples" box.  Double click on the grouping variable to distinguish the samples in the "Subscripts" box.
  • Click in "Options".  In "Hypothesized ratio", select "Variance 1/Variance 2".  In "Value", enter the hypothesized value for the ratio. Use the default value of 1 to test the equality of two variances.  Select the alternative hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To compute a hypothesis test for variance from two columns of data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select ""Samples in different columns".  Double click on one variable in the "First" box.  Double click on the other variable in the "Second" box.
  • Click in "Options".  In "Hypothesized ratio", select "Variance 1/Variance 2".  In "Value", enter the hypothesized value for the ratio. Use the default value of 1 to test the equality of two variances.  Select the alternative hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To compute a hypothesis test for variance from summarized data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "1-Variance".
  • In the "Data" menu, select ""Sample variances".
  • Enter the "Sample size" and "Variances" for each sample.
  • Click in "Options".  In "Hypothesized ratio", select "Variance 1/Variance 2".  In "Value", enter the hypothesized value for the ratio. Use the default value of 1 to test the equality of two variances.  Select the alternative hypothesis.  The confidence level is irrelevant for the hypothesis test.  Click on "OK". 
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Correlation Coefficient 

Main Menu

To compute the correlation coefficient for paired data, 

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Basic Statistics".  Click on "correlation".
  • Double click on the variables to correlate.  Make sure the "Display p-value" box is checked.
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Linear Regression

Main Menu

To find the least square linear regression line (line of best fit), 

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Regression".  Click on "Regression". 
  • In the "Response" box, double click on the Y variable. 
  • In the "Predictors" box, double click on the X variable.
  • Click on "Storage".  Click on "Fits".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Multiple Regression

Main Menu

To find the multiple regression line when using only continuous variables for prediction, 

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Regression".  Click on "Regression". 
  • In the "Response" box, double click on the Y variable. 
  • In the "Predictors" box, double click on each of the X variables.
  • Click on "Storage".  Click on "Fits".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To find the multiple regression line when using continuous and categorical variables for prediction, 

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Regression".  Click on "General Regression". 
  • In the "Response" box, double click on the Y variable. 
  • In the "Model" box, double click on each of the continuous X variables.
  • In the "Categorical predictors" box, double click on each of the categorical X variables.
  • Click on "Storage".  Click on "Fits".  Click on "OK".
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test

Main Menu

To perform a Goodness of Fit Test,

  • Enter the observed frequencies for the groups as a column in a data set.
  • If the desired outcome is not random, enter the desired proportions in a second column.
  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Tables".  Click on "Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test (One Variable)".
  • Click on "Observed counts".  Double click on the variable containing the observed frequencies.
  • If the desired outcome is random, click on "Equal proportions".  If the desired outcome is a proportional fit, click on "Specific proportions" and double click on the column containing the desired proportions.
  • If you do not want graphs, click "Graphs" and de-select the graph options.
  • Click on "OK".
  • The results are stored in the session file.

Chi-Square Analysis

Main Menu

To perform a Chi-Square Analysis, 

  • Enter the contingency table as a data set. 
  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "Tables".  Click on "Chi-Square Test (Two-Way Table in Worksheet)". 
  • In "Columns containing the table", double click on each variable to be compared.  Click on "OK". 
  • The results are stored in the session file.

One Way Analysis of Variance

Main Menu

To perform an ANOVA test for multiple columns of data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "ANOVA".  Click on "One-Way (Unstacked)".
  • Double click on each variable to be compared.  Click on "OK". 
  • The results are stored in the session file.

To perform an ANOVA test for one column of data,

  • Click on "Stats".  Click on "ANOVA".  Click on "One-Way".
  • In "Response", double click on the variable to be analyzed.
  • In "Factor", double click on the categorical variable to separate the groups.  Click on "OK". 
  • The results are stored in the session file.